What is a hyperfine state?
The hyperfine states of a trapped ion are commonly used for storing qubits in ion-trap quantum computing. They have the advantage of having very long lifetimes, experimentally exceeding ~10 minutes (compared to ~1 s for metastable electronic levels).
What is hyperfine structure in ESR?
Hyperfine structure (HFS) occurs as a result of the magnetic interaction between the electronic spin S and the nuclear spin I. Characteristics of isotropic hyperfine splitting. 1. It depends on the magnitude of magnetic moments of nuclear and electron spins.
What is hyperfine effect?
hyperfine structure (HFS), in spectroscopy, the splitting of a spectral line into a number of components. The splitting is caused by nuclear effects and cannot be observed in an ordinary spectroscope without the aid of an optical device called an interferometer.
What is difference between fine structure and hyperfine structure?
The key difference between fine and hyperfine structure is that in fine structures, the line splitting is a result of the energy changes that are produced by electron spin-orbit coupling, whereas in hyperfine structures, the line splitting is a result of the interaction between the magnetic field and nuclear spin.
What is hyperfine constant?
The hyperfine coupling constant (a) is directly related to the distance between peaks in a spectrum and its magnitude indicates the extent of delocalization of the unpaired electron over the molecule. This constant may also be calculated.
What is hyperfine splitting in quantum mechanics?
The hyperfine splitting is due to the interaction of the magnetic moments of the electron and proton, which gives a slightly different magnetic energy for each spin state. These energy shifts are only about ten-millionths of an electron volt—really very small compared with 10 electron volts!
What is fine structure explain?
fine structure, in spectroscopy, the splitting of the main spectral lines of an atom into two or more components, each representing a slightly different wavelength. Fine structure is produced when an atom emits light in making the transition from one energy state to another.
What is zero field splitting in ESR spectroscopy?
Zero field splitting refers to this lifting of degeneracy even in the absence of a magnetic field. ZFS is responsible for many effects related to the magnetic properties of materials, as manifested in their electron spin resonance spectra and magnetism.
What is hyperfine splitting in hydrogen?
The hyperfine splitting is due to the interaction of the magnetic moments of the electron and proton, which gives a slightly different magnetic energy for each spin state.
How are hyperfine lines calculated?
The number of peaks resulting from hyperfine splitting of radicals may be predicted by the following equations where Mi is the number of equivalent nuclei:
- # of peaks=MiI+1 for atoms having one equivalent nuclei.
- # of peaks=(2M1I1+1)(2M2I2+1)…. for atoms with multiple equivalent nuclei.
What is meant by hyperfine coupling?
Hyperfine coupling is caused by the interaction between the magnetic moments arising from the spins of both the nucleus and electrons in atoms. As shown in Figure 1, in a single electron system the electron with its own magnetic moment moves within the magnetic dipole field of the nucleus.
What is meant by LS coupling?
In atomic spectroscopy, Russell–Saunders coupling, also known as LS coupling, specifies a coupling scheme of electronic spin- and orbital-angular momenta. The coupling scheme is named after H. N. Russell and F. A. Saunders (1925).