What is the role of Gal3?

What is the role of Gal3?

Functions of Gal-3. Gal-3 has the ability to bind to cell surface and ECM glycans and affect a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell apoptosis, adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, and inflammatory responses (Fig. 1).

What is galectin-3 binding protein?

Galectin-3 binding protein (Gal-3BP) is a large hyperglycosylated protein that acts as a ligand for several galectins through glycan-dependent interactions. Gal-3BP can induce galectin-mediated tumor cell aggregation to increase the survival of cancer cells in the bloodstream during the metastatic process.

Where is galectin-3 produced?

It binds proteins in a carbohydrate‑dependent and ‑independent manner. Galectin‑3 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm; however, it shuttles into the nucleus and is secreted onto the cell surface and into biological fluids including serum and urine.

How many galectins are there?

In humans, there are 12 identified galectins, some with tissue-specific distribution. Galectins are found inside cells and in the nucleus, cytosol, and organelles, as well as extracellularly. Galectin-1, -2, -3, -4, -7, -8, -9, and -12 can all induce T-cell apoptosis and modulate inflammation.

What is galectin 3 a marker for?

The galectin-3 ELISA assay is now specifically indicated as a prognostic marker to monitor progression and mortality risk in chronic heart failure patients.

What is Belapectin?

MD-02 (belapectin) is an inhibitor of galectin 3 that. reduces liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in rats and. was safe and well tolerated in phase 1 studies.

What kind of proteins are galectins in humans?

Galectins are a class of proteins that bind specifically to β-galactoside sugars, such as N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-3GlcNAc or Galβ1-4GlcNAc), which can be bound to proteins by either N-linked or O-linked glycosylation.

What is a normal galectin level?

The patient’s galectin-3 level was 21.8 ng/ml. In recent research, the average value for galectin-3 in the general population was found to be 11.7 ng/ml [5]. In patients with congestive heart failure, abnormal levels for the galectin-3 ELISA test measure >17.8 ng/ml.

What amino acids can be glycosylated?

Glycosylation can occur on amino acids with functional hydroxyl groups, which are most often Ser and Thr. In humans, the most common sugars linked to Ser or Thr are GlcNAc and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)7 (Fig.

What is galectin 3 blood test?

Galectin-3 and natriuretic peptides are measures of separate and distinct biological processes. Each marker provides independent and complementary information on the status and prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure.

What is a glycosylated protein?

Protein glycosylation is the most common form of posttranslational modification (PTM) on excreted and extracellular membrane-associated proteins (Spiro, 2002). It involves the covalent attachment of many different types of glycans (also called carbohydrates, saccharides, or sugars) to a protein.

Is insulin glycosylated?

These glycosylated insulin molecules are reversibly bound to the glucose-binding lectin Concanavalin A (Con A). Such sugar-insulin/lectin complexes serve as an insulin reservoir from which sugar-insulin molecules are displaced by glucose.