What is the term for DNA-protein complex?

What is the term for DNA-protein complex?

These proteins are called histones, and the resulting DNA-protein complex is called chromatin.

What do DNA bending proteins do?

Bending proteins are involved in DNA replication, transcription, and recombination, and often participate in multicomponent complexes. Their role in these complexes is probably to fix the geometry of DNA in such complexes so that all the components will interact optimally to effect the function of that complex.

What causes DNA bending?

In this, the ‘junction’ model, bending is caused by the abrupt change in structure when the A-tract meets the more normal (straight) B-DNA intervening sequence, resulting in the helix axes of the two segments being at an angle to each other (Fig. 3.20a). Abrupt changes in either tilt or roll can produce this situation.

What are DNA complexes?

Dataset of protein-DNA complex structures The complexes were defined as any structure containing one or more protein chains and at least one double-stranded DNA of more than four base-pairs (bp) in length.

Where does the central dogma occur?

During translation, these messages travel from where the DNA is in the cell nucleus to the ribosomes where they are ‘read’ to make specific proteins. The central dogma states that the pattern of information that occurs most frequently in our cells is: From existing DNA to make new DNA (DNA replication?)

What is DNA bending?

Bent DNA is curved over a stretch of several bases resulting in different orientation of the regions on both sides of the curvature (Figure 4a). It was shown that short repeated stretches of poly-TA sequences or repetitive runs of 4–6 adenine base pairs (“A-tracts”) introduce an intrinsic curvature of the helix [27].

What is TATA box in biology?

A TATA box is a DNA sequence that indicates where a genetic sequence can be read and decoded. It is a type of promoter sequence, which specifies to other molecules where transcription begins. Transcription is a process that produces an RNA molecule from a DNA sequence.

Why do proteins bind to the major groove?

Certain proteins bind to DNA to alter its structure or to regulate transcription (copying DNA to RNA) or replication (copying DNA to DNA). It is easier for these DNA binding proteins to interact with the bases (the internal parts of the DNA molecule) on the major groove side because the backbones are not in the way.

What is called central dogma?

The ‘Central Dogma’ is the process by which the instructions in DNA are converted into a functional product. It was first proposed in 1958 by Francis Crick, discoverer of the structure of DNA.

What is DNA looping?

DNA-looping mechanisms are part of networks that regulate all aspects of DNA metabolism, including transcription, replication, and recombination. DNA looping is involved in regulation of transcriptional initiation in prokaryotic operons, including ara, gal, lac, and deo, and in phage systems.

What are TATA and CAAT box?

TATA box is a conserved nucleotide region found about 25-30 base pairs upstream to the transcription initiation site. On the other hand, CAAT box is a conserved region of nucleotides found about 75-80 base pairs upstream to the transcription initiation site.

What are the non-sequence-specific proteins involved in DNA bending?

Generally, DNA bending by the non-sequence-specific proteins (such as HMGB1, HMG-D or Nhp6A) involves multiple hydrophobic residues at two sites in DNA whereas only one DNA intercalation residue is observed within the sequence-specific HMG-box proteins (e.g., LEF-1 or SRY) ( [39] and refs. therein). Martijn S. Luijsterburg,

Do DNA binding proteins bend the DNA?

The literature on DNA bending by specific DNA binding proteins, or more exactly their DNA-binding domains, is extensive. Formation of many protein–DNA complexes results not only in deformation of the DNA, but also in changes in the DNA-binding proteins, which are usually partly unfolded when free but refold upon DNA binding.

How long does DNA bending take to occur?

DNA bending by proteins occurs typically on a millisecond timescale but it is desirable to be able to monitor particular DNAs for extended times, to explore the effects of enzyme concentration, ionic strength, and pH changes or presence of a cofactor.

What is the wedge model for DNA bending?

The wedge model for DNA bending assumes that the AA dinucleotide contains a “wedge” angle that causes a deflection in the axis of the DNA double helix (Figure 2.4; Trifonov and Sussman, 1980; Ulanovsky et al., 1986 ). The sum of wedges pointing in the same direction, a condition met by the 10-bp phasing, leads to the bending of DNA.